Carbon

6
C
Group
14
Period
2
Block
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
6
6
6
General Properties
Atomic Number
6
Atomic Weight
12.0107
Mass Number
12
Category
Other nonmetals
Colour
Black
Radioactive
No
From the Latin word carbo, charcoal
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
Electrons per shell
2, 4
Electron Configuration
[He] 2s2 2p2
C
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
2.267 g/cm3
Melting Point
3948.15 K | 3675 °C | 6647 °F
Boiling Point
4300.15 K | 4027 °C | 7280.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
105 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
715 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.709 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.18%
Abundance in Universe
0.5%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure carbon as graphite
CAS Number
7440-44-0
PubChem CID Number
5462310
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
67 pm
Covalent Radius
77 pm
Electronegativity
2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
11.2603 eV
Atomic Volume
5.31 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1.29 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
12C, 13C
Unstable Isotopes
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C