Tin

50
Sn
Group
14
Period
5
Block
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
50
50
69
General Properties
Atomic Number
50
Atomic Weight
118.71
Mass Number
119
Category
Post-transition metals
Colour
Silver
Radioactive
No
The Latin word for tin is stannum
Crystal Structure
Centered Tetragonal
History
Tin was first smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BC to produce bronze.

The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC.

Cassiterite, the tin oxide form of tin, was most likely the original source of tin in ancient times.

British scientist Robert Boyle published a description of his experiments on the oxidation of tin in 1673.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Sn
When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the tin cry can be heard
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
7.287 g/cm3
Melting Point
505.08 K | 231.93 °C | 449.47 °F
Boiling Point
2875.15 K | 2602 °C | 4715.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
290 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.228 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.00022%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-7%
Droplet
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Droplet of solidified molten tin
CAS Number
7440-31-5
PubChem CID Number
5352426
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
140 pm
Covalent Radius
139 pm
Electronegativity
1.96 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
7.3439 eV
Atomic Volume
16.3 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.666 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, 2, 4
Applications
Tin is used as a coating on the surface of other metals to prevent corrosion.

It has long been used as a solder in the form of an alloy with lead.

Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings.

Tin chloride is used as a mordant in dyeing textiles and for increasing the weight of silk.
Tin is considered to be non-toxic but most tin salts are toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
112Sn, 114Sn, 115Sn, 116Sn, 117Sn, 118Sn, 119Sn, 120Sn, 122Sn, 124Sn
Unstable Isotopes
99Sn, 100Sn, 101Sn, 102Sn, 103Sn, 104Sn, 105Sn, 106Sn, 107Sn, 108Sn, 109Sn, 110Sn, 111Sn, 113Sn, 121Sn, 123Sn, 125Sn, 126Sn, 127Sn, 128Sn, 129Sn, 130Sn, 131Sn, 132Sn, 133Sn, 134Sn, 135Sn, 136Sn, 137Sn