Cadmium

48
Cd
Group
12
Period
5
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
48
48
64
General Properties
Atomic Number
48
Atomic Weight
112.411
Mass Number
112
Category
Transition metals
Colour
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Latin word cadmia, Greek kadmeia - the ancient name for calamine, zinc carbonate
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
Cadmium was discovered by German chemist Friedrich Stromeyer in 1817 as an impurity in zinc carbonate.

Stromeyer noted that some impure samples of calamine (zinc carbonate) changed colour when heated but pure calamine did not.

Cadmium was independently discovered by German chemist Karl Hermann in 1818.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Cd
Cadmium is a soft metal which is easily cut with a knife
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
8.69 g/cm3
Melting Point
594.22 K | 321.07 °C | 609.93 °F
Boiling Point
1040.15 K | 767 °C | 1412.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
6.3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
100 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.232 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.000015%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
A
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
A crystal cadmium bar made by the flux process
CAS Number
7440-43-9
PubChem CID Number
23973
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
151 pm
Covalent Radius
144 pm
Electronegativity
1.69 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
8.9938 eV
Atomic Volume
13.1 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.968 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2
Applications
Cadmium is a key component in battery production.

It is also is used in electroplating.

Cadmium oxide is used in black and white television phosphors and in the blue and green phosphors for colour television picture tubes.

Cadmium is used as a barrier to control neutrons in nuclear fission.
Cadmium and its compounds are highly toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd
Unstable Isotopes
95Cd, 96Cd, 97Cd, 98Cd, 99Cd, 100Cd, 101Cd, 102Cd, 103Cd, 104Cd, 105Cd, 107Cd, 109Cd, 113Cd, 115Cd, 116Cd, 117Cd, 118Cd, 119Cd, 120Cd, 121Cd, 122Cd, 123Cd, 124Cd, 125Cd, 126Cd, 127Cd, 128Cd, 129Cd, 130Cd, 131Cd, 132Cd