Ruthenium

44
Ru
Group
8
Period
5
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
44
44
57
General Properties
Atomic Number
44
Atomic Weight
101.07
Mass Number
101
Category
Transition metals
Colour
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
12.37 g/cm3
Melting Point
2607.15 K | 2334 °C | 4233.2 °F
Boiling Point
4423.15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
Heat of Fusion
25.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
580 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.238 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
9.9×10-8%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-7%
Gas
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
CAS Number
7440-18-8
PubChem CID Number
23950
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
134 pm
Covalent Radius
146 pm
Electronegativity
2.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
7.3605 eV
Atomic Volume
8.3 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1.17 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
Unstable Isotopes
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru