Zirconium

40
Zr
Group
4
Period
5
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
40
40
51
General Properties
Atomic Number
40
Atomic Weight
91.224
Mass Number
91
Category
Transition metals
Colour
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Persian zargun, gold like
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
Zirconium was first recognised as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
6.506 g/cm3
Melting Point
2128.15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
Boiling Point
4682.15 K | 4409 °C | 7968.2 °F
Heat of Fusion
21 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
580 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.278 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.013%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-6%
Two
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS Number
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
160 pm
Covalent Radius
175 pm
Electronegativity
1.33 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
6.6339 eV
Atomic Volume
14.0 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.227 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
Unstable Isotopes
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr