Lithium

3
Li
Group
1
Period
2
Block
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
3
3
4
General Properties
Atomic Number
3
Atomic Weight
6.941
Mass Number
7
Category
Alkali metals
Colour
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Greek word lithos, stone
Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic
History
Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden.

The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently.

In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.
Electrons per shell
2, 1
Electron Configuration
[He] 2s1
Li
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
0.534 g/cm3
Melting Point
453.69 K | 180.54 °C | 356.97 °F
Boiling Point
1615.15 K | 1342 °C | 2447.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
147 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
3.582 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0017%
Abundance in Universe
6×10-7%
0.5
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
0.5 grams lithium under argon
CAS Number
7439-93-2
PubChem CID Number
3028194
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
152 pm
Covalent Radius
128 pm
Electronegativity
0.98 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
5.3917 eV
Atomic Volume
13.10 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.847 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1
Applications
Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant.

Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics.

Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants.
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
6Li, 7Li
Unstable Isotopes
4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, 11Li, 12Li